Wind Design of Tall Buildings: The State of the Art
Keywords:wind loading, tall buildings, human perception of motion, computational fluid dynamics, wind drift
The construction of tall and slender buildings has seen recent growth in many cities around the world. Tall buildings are susceptible to dynamic excitation under wind effects which typically govern the structural design for strength, stability, and serviceability. This paper presents the state of the art in the analysis and design of tall buildings against wind effects. Structural design criteria are discussed in detail, with serviceability criteria relating to occupant comfort noted as being of particular importance. The latest in wind analysis tools and techniques is also presented. Wind tunnel testing remains the gold standard for determining wind loads on tall buildings, while the emerging use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is noted as being particularly useful for concept design stages. The paper aims to provide a valuable reference for engineers, architects, and designers involved in wind analysis and design of tall buildings.
ABCB, 2019. National Construction Code. Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB), Canberra.
Abu-Zidan, Y., 2019. Verification and validation framework for computational fluid dynamics simulation of wind loads on tall buildings, Department of Infrastructure Engineering. The University of Melbourne.
Abu-Zidan, Y., Mendis, P., Gunawardena, T., 2020. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer inhomogeneity in CFD simulations of tall buildings. Heliyon 6, e04274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04274
Abu-Zidan, Y., Mendis, P., Gunawardena, T., 2021a. Optimising the computational domain size in CFD simulations of tall buildings. Heliyon 7, e06723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06723 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06723
Abu-Zidan, Y., Nguyen, K., Mendis, P., 2021b. Influence of building shape on wind-driven rain exposure in tall buildings. Journal of Architectural Engineering 27, 04021027. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000496 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000496
Abu-Zidan, Y., Rathnayaka, S., Mendis, P., Nguyen, K., 2022. Effect of wind speed and direction on facade fire spread in an isolated rectangular building. Fire Safety Journal 129, 103570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103570 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2022.103570
AIAA, 1998. Guide for the verification and validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations (AIAA G-077-1998(2002)). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
AWES, 2019. Quality assurance manual: Wind engineering studies of buildings. AWES-QAM-1-2019. Australasian Wind Engineering Society (AWES).
Biswas, P., Peronto, J., 2020. Design and Performance of Tall Buildings for Wind. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784415658
Blocken, B., 2015. Computational Fluid Dynamics for urban physics: Importance, scales, possibilities, limitations and ten tips and tricks towards accurate and reliable simulations. Building and Environment 91, 219-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.02.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.02.015
Blocken, B., Gualtieri, C., 2012. Ten iterative steps for model development and evaluation applied to Computational Fluid Dynamics for Environmental Fluid Mechanics. Environmental Modelling & Software 33, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.001
Burton, M.D., Kwok, K.C.S., Abdelrazaq, A., 2015. Wind-induced motion of tall buildings: Designing for occupant comfort. International Journal of High-Rise Buildings 4, 1-8.
Davenport, A.G., 1961. A statistical approach to the treatment of wind loading on tall masts and suspension bridges, Department of Civil Engineering. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
Davenport, A.G., 1967. The dependence of wind loads on meteorological parameters, Proc. Int. Res. Seminar, Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures. Univ. of Toronto Press, Ottawa, pp. 19 – 82.
Franke, J., 2010. A review of verification and validation in relation to CWE, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering.
Griffis, L.G., 1993. Serviceability limit states under wind load. Engineering Journal 30, 1-16.
Gringorten, I.I., 1963. A plotting rule for extreme probability paper. Journal of Geophysical Research (1896-1977) 68, 813-814. https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ068i003p00813 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ068i003p00813
Gumbel, E.J., 1954. Statistical theory of extreme values and some practical applications, NBS Applied Mathematics Series.
Holmes, J.D., 2002. A re-analysis of recorded extreme wind speeds in Region A. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 4, 29-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2002.11464905 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2002.11464905
Holmes, J.D., 2015. Wind loading of structures, 3rd edition ed. CRC Press.
Holmes, J.D., Ginger, J.D., 2012. The gust wind speed duration in AS/NZS 1170.2. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 13, 207-217. https://doi.org/10.7158/13287982.2012.11465111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7158/S12-017.2012.13.3
Holmes, J.D., Moriarty, W.W., 1999. Application of the generalized Pareto distribution to extreme value analysis in wind engineering. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 83, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00056-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00056-2
International Organization for Standardization, 1984. ISO6897: Guidelines for the evaluation of the response of occupants of fixed structures, to low-frequency horizontal motion (0.063 to 1 Hz).
International Organization for Standardization, 2007. ISO10137: Basis for design structures : Serviceability of buildings and walkways against vibrations.
Irwin, A.W., 1978. Human response to dynamics motion of structures. The Structural Engineer, 237-244.
Irwin, P., Denoon, R., Scott, D., 2013. Wind tunnel testing of high-rise buildings. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315879529
Isyumov, N., 2012. Alan G. Davenport's mark on wind engineering. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 104-106, 12-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2012.02.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2012.02.007
Kwok, K.C.S., Burton, M.D., Abdelrazaq, A.K., 2015. Wind-induced motion of tall buildings : Designing for habitability. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413852
Kwok, K.C.S., Hitchcock, P.A., Burton, M.D., 2009. Perception of vibration and occupant comfort in wind-excited tall buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 97, 368-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.05.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.05.006
Lago, A., Trabucco, D., Wood, A., 2019. Damping technologies for tall buildings. Butterworth-Heinemann. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815963-7.00003-8
Lamb, S., Kwok, K.C.S., 2017. The fundamental human response to wind-induced building motion. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 165, 79-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.03.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.03.002
Lamb, S., Kwok, K.C.S., Walton, D., 2013. Occupant comfort in wind-excited tall buildings: Motion sickness, compensatory behaviours and complaint. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 119, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2013.05.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2013.05.004
Marsland, L., Nguyen, K., Zhang, Y., Huang, Y., Abu-Zidan, Y., Gunawardena, T., Mendis, P., 2022. Improving aerodynamic performance of tall buildings using façade openings at service floors. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 225, 104997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2022.104997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2022.104997
Melbourne, W., Cheung, J., 1988. Designing for serviceable accelerations in tall buildings, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tall Buildings, Hong Kong and Shanghai, pp. 148-155.
Mendis, P., Fernando, S., Holmes, J., Gunawardena, T., Abu-Zidan, Y., Dias, P., 2018. Wind induced fatigue analysis of Lotus Tower Mast, in: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Australasian Wind Engineering Society Workshop. Australian Wind Engineering Society.
Mendis, P., Ngo, T., Haritos, N., Hira, A., 2007. Wind loading on tall buildings. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 41-54.
Oberkampf, W.L., Trucano, T.G., 2002. Verification and validation in computational fluid dynamics. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 38, 209-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-0421(02)00005-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-0421(02)00005-2
Pope, S.B., 2000. Turbulent flows. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840531
Saunders, J.W., Melbourne, W.H., 1977. Cross-wind moment spectra on rectangular buildings and the prediction of dynamic response, in: Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Conference.
Smith, R., 2011. Deflection Limits in Tall Buildings—Are They Useful?, Structures Congress 2011. American Society of Civil Engineers, Las Vegas, Nevada, pp. 515-527. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/41171(401)45
Solari, G., 2017. Wind Loading of Structures: Framework, Phenomena, Tools and Codification. Structures 12, 265-285. doi:10.1016/j.istruc.2017.09.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2017.09.008
Soong, T.T., Costantinou, M.C., 1994. Passive and active structural vibration control in civil engineering. Springer, New York. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-3012-4
Standards Australia, 2002. AS/NZS 1170.0:2002: Structural design actions. Part 0: General principles. Standards Australia / Standards New Zealand, Sydney, New South Wales.
Standards Australia, 2021. AS/NZS 1170.2:2021: Structural design actions. Part 2: Wind actions. Standards Australia / Standards New Zealand, Sydney, New South Wales.
Stathopoulos, T., Baniotopoulos, C.C., 2007. Wind effects on buildings and design of wind-sensitive structures. Springer-Verlag Wien. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-211-73076-8
Tamura, Y., Kareem, A., 2013. Advanced structural wind engineering. Springer Japan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54337-4
Van der Hoven, I., 1957. Power spectrum of horizontal wind speed in the frequency range from 0.0007 to 900 cycles per hour. Journal of Meteorology 14, 160-164. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0160:psohws>2.0.co;2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0160:PSOHWS>2.0.CO;2
Wijesooriya, K., Mohotti, D., Amin, A., Chauhan, K., 2021. Comparison between an uncoupled one-way and two-way fluid structure interaction simulation on a super-tall slender structure. Engineering Structures 229, 111636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111636 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111636
Yamada, M., Goto, 1975. The criteria to motions in Tall Buildings, Pan Pacific Tall Buildings Conference, Hawaii, pp. 233-244.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Y. Abu-Zidan, P. Mendis , T. Gunawardena, D. Mohotti , S. Fernando
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.