Seismic Analysis of RC Clinker Silos




Seismic Analysis, Pushover Analysis, Free Vibration, Response Spectrum, Buckling Mode, Clinker Silos


This research addresses the nonlinear analysis of flat bottom clinker silos that are typically used to store granular materials. Most of silos’ failure is due to the inefficiency to resist seismic forces. One of the silo failure reasons is that filled granular material is usually treated as a water pressure which is not realistic. Water pressure is linearly distributed, while granular material has a nonlinear distribution along silo height. The main investigated variables were silo width, height, reinforcement ratio, and the existence of opening in the bottom part of the silo wall. Effects of these variables on silos’ dynamic properties - modal periods and mode shapes - as well as seismic response, base shear, base overturning moment, and the least number of modes needed to satisfy mass participation of 90%, were examined. Extensive numerical analyses were conducted to examine these parameters using different types of analyses such as free vibration, response spectrum, and pushover analysis. It was found that increasing height on time-period has a great effect when compared to the effect of diameter increase. Reinforcement ratio in silo without openings has a minor effect in small diameters while it has a major effect in case of silos with large diameters.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbas, M. (2014), Seismic Response of Clinker Silos, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Msc thesis.

Abd El-Rahim, H. (2013). Response of Cylindrical Elevated Wheat Storage Silos to Seismic Loading. Journal Of Engineering Sciences, 41 (6), 2079-2102. DOI:

American Concrete Institute. (1996). Standard Practice for De-sign and Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing Granular Materials.

Ansys (2016), Ansys help viewer SAS IP, inc.

Arar, M. (2016). Elastic Properties of Cement Phases Using Molecular Dynamic Simulation. Doctoral dissertation, Ryerson University.

Beg, M., & Yadav, A. (2017). Seismic Analysis of Elevated Steel Silos Under Different Filling Conditions, Interna-tional Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technolo-gy (IJEAT), Vol. N0.5, Issue No.4.

British Standards Institution. (2005). Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance. London: British Standards Institution.

Butenweg, C., Rosin, J., & Holler, S. (2017). Analysis of Cylin-drical Granular Material Silos under Seismic Excitation. Buildings, 7(4), 61. DOI:

Carson, J., & Craig, D. (2015). Silo Design Codes: Their Limits and Inconsistencies. Procedia Engineering, 102, 647-656. DOI:

Castiglioni, C. A., Kanyilmaz, A., & John, B. (2015). Simplified Numerical Modeling of Elevated Silos for Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis. International Journal of Earth-quake Engineering, XXXIII (1-2), CTA.

Code, I. S. (2002). (Part 1), Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

El-Arab, I. E. (2014). Seismic Analysis of RC Silos Dynamic Discharge Phenomena. Int. J. Eng. Adv. Technol., 4, 91-99.

European Committee for Standardization. (2006) EN 1991-4: Actions on Structures-Part 4: Silos and Tanks.

Gallego, E., Ruiz, A., & Aguado, P. (2015). Simulation of Silo Filling and Uischarge using ANSYS and Comparison with Experimental Data. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118, 281-289. DOI:

Gudehus, G. (1996). A Comprehensive Constitutive Equation for Granular Materials. Soils And Foundations, 36(1), 1-12. DOI:

Holler, S., & Meskouris, K. (2006). Granular Material Silos un-der Dynamic Excitation: Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation. Journal of Structural Engi-neering, 132 (10), 1573-1579. DOI:

Jagtap, P., Chakraborty, T., & Matsagar, V. (2014). Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of Granular Materials in Base Ex-cited Silos. Mechanics of Advanced Materials And Structures, 22 (4), 313-323. DOI:

Janssen, H. A. (1895). Versuche uber getreidedruck in si-lozellen. Z. Ver. Dtsch. Ing., 39 (35), 1045-1049.

Maj, M. (2017). Some Causes of Reinforced Concrete Silos Failure. Procedia Engineering, 172, 685-691. DOI:

Nateghi, F., & Yakhchalian, M. (2011). Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Silos Considering Granular Mate-rial-Structure Interaction. Procedia Engineering, 14, 3050-3058. DOI:

Niemunis, A., & Herle, I. (1997). Hypoplastic Model for Cohe-sionless Soils with Elastic Strain range. Mechanics Of Cohesive-Frictional Materials, 2 (4), 279-299. DOI:<279::AID-CFM29>3.0.CO;2-8

Pieraccini, L., Palermo, M., Stefano, S., & Trombetti, T. (2017). On the Fundamental Periods of Vibration of Flat-Bottom Ground-Supported Circular Silos containing Gran-like Material. Procedia Engineering, 199, 248-253. DOI:

Pieraccini, L., Silvestri, S., & Trombetti, T. (2015). Refinements to The Silvestri’s Theory for The Evaluation of The Seismic Actions in Flat-Bottom Silos Containing Grain-Like aterial. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13 (11), 3493-3525. DOI:

Rombach, G. A., & Neumann, F. (2004). 3-D Finite Element Modelling of Granular Flow in Silos. In The 17th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference.

Silvestri, S., Gasparini, G., Trombetti, T., & Foti, D. (2012). On the valuation of the Horizontal Forces Produced by Grain-Like Material inSide Silos During Earthquakes. Bulletin Of Earthquake Engineering, 10 (5), 1535-1560. DOI:

Togarsi, R. (2015). Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Silos. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 04 (09), 174-178. DOI:

Von Wolffersdorff, P. (1996). A Hypoplastic Relation for Granular Materials with a Predefined Limit State Sur-face. Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials, 1 (3), 251-271. DOI:<251::AID-CFM13>3.0.CO;2-3




How to Cite

Sharaf, T., Hassan, M. and Ramadan, O. (2023) “Seismic Analysis of RC Clinker Silos”, Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 23(1), pp. 13–27. doi: 10.56748/ejse.233371.