Failure Modes of In-filled Frames
Keywords:Crack pattern, Cyclic loads, Failure modes, In-filled frames, In-fills with openings
The main objective of this paper is to present a general classification scheme of the failure modes of in-filled frames, both with and without openings. For the former, the existing classification is summarized based on a literature review. For the latter, recent experimental results on frames in-filled with unreinforced masonry walls with openings and subjected to slowly applied cyclic lateral loads are used, and a number of different failure modes (crack patterns) of masonry in-filled frames are identified and classified into distinct categories. Such a classification of failure modes improves substantially the understanding of the earthquake resistant behaviour of in-filled frames and leads to better methodological approaches regarding their modelling, analysis and design.
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